Support for Geospatial Semantic Investigations 

Resources for geospatial semantic research and applications are listed by topic.

Standards Groups

Ontologies derived from Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards can be found at

Ontology representations of the ISO/TC211 Standards are maintained in the GitHub repository for the ISO/TC211 Group on Ontology Management (GOM).  Official ontologies are located at

Das, S., Sundara, S., and Cyganiak, R., eds., 2012, R2RML— RDB to RDF mapping language: W3C web page, accessed August 2, 2019, at: 

Harris, S., and Seaborne, A., eds., 2013, SPARQL 1.1 query language: W3C web page, accessed July 5, 2019, at TR/ sparql11- query/ 

Perry, M., and Herring, J., 2012, OGC GeoSPARQL—A geographic query language for RDF data: Open Geospatial Consortium project document OGC 11–052r4, v. 1.0, 75 p., accessed November 7, 2019, at

Lott, R., ed., 2015, Geographic information—Well-known text representation of coordinate reference systems: Open Geospatial Consortium document 12–063r5, 96 p., accessed August 2, 2019, at 063r5/12-063r5.html.

W3C, 2012, Web Ontology Language (OWL): W3C web page, accessed July 5, 2019, at

W3C, 2014, Resource Description Framework (RDF): W3C web page, accessed July 5, 2019, at

Semantic interoperability between natural languages and national standards 

Feng, C.-C., & Sorokine, A. (2014a). Comparing English, Mandarin, and Russian hydrographic and terrain categories. International Journal of Geographical Information Science28(6), 1294–1315.

Feng, C.-C., & Sorokine, A. (2014b, September 18). Comparing Terrain Categories in Wikipedia for Spatial Data Integration in CyberGIS. GIScience 2014, Vienna, Austria.

Spatial Theory

Spatial Reasoning

Bennett, B. (2008) Spatial Reasoning. In: Karen K. Kemp, Ed.,  Encyclopedia of Geographic Information Science DOI:

Egenhofer M. (2015) Qualitative Spatial-Relation Reasoning for Design. In: Gero J. (eds) Studying Visual and Spatial Reasoning for Design Creativity. Springer, Dordrecht

University of California-Santa Barbara. Space and Time for Knowledge Organization (STKO).

Expert Scholars

Samantha Arundel, National Terrain Mapping.

Irina Bastrakova (17) Irina Bastrakova ( 

Giedrė Beconytė 

Temenuojka Bendrova, 

Silvana Camboim,

Otakar Čerba, Person detail (

Amy Griffin, Cartography and Visualization

Francis Harvey. Francis Harvey | Leipzig University (Universität Leipzig) -

Xiaogang (Marshall) Ma, Xiaogang (Marshall) Ma (

Tomáš Řezník,

Simon Scheider.   Dr. Simon Scheider - Geosciences - Utrecht University (

Gaurav Sinha, Gaurav Sinha | Ohio University

E. Lynn Usery. E. Lynn Usery (

Dalia Varanka. Geospatial Semantics and Ontology (

Chuanrong Zhang Chuanrong (Cindy) Zhang | Department of Geography (

Semantic Technology

Linked Open Data (LOD)

DBpedia, Retrieved from

Goodwin, J., Dolbear, C., and Hart, G. 2008. Geographical Linked Data: The Administrative Geography of Great Britain on the Semantic Web. Transactions in GIS, 12(Suppl. 1): 19 –30


OpenLink Software. 2021. Virtuoso. OpenLink Software: Virtuoso Homepage (

University of Southern California, 2016, Karma—A data integration tool: University of Southern California web page, accessed August 2, 2019, at